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10 Surprising Facts About Alexander Hamilton

Getty Images // Chloe Effron
Getty Images // Chloe Effron

The Broadway musical Hamilton, like Alexander Hamilton himself, is an improbable success story. The critically-acclaimed show美女视频黄频大全视频 has renewed America’s interest in the country's most enigmatic founding father, who rose from obscurity to help build a new nation—one where he earned friends and enemies at just about every turn. To celebrate Hamilton's birthday, here are 10 things you might not know about him.

1. He probably lied about his age.

We know that Hamilton was born on January 11; what’s in doubt is the year in question. A native of Nevis (a small island in the Caribbean), Hamilton repeatedly said that he was born in 1757. But official Nevisian records cite 1755 as his birth year. Why the discrepancy? Perhaps his college search had something to do with it. According to , whose Alexander Hamilton biography inspired the Broadway show, “While applying to Princeton, Hamilton may have decided to ‘correct’ his real age and shed a couple of years. Prodigies aren’t supposed to be overaged freshman.” 

2. He dabbled in poetry.

For a orphan (his father had abandoned his family when Hamilton was just a boy, and his mother died not long after), the future founding father wrote with unbelievable polish. On August 31, 1772, a hurricane ravaged St. Croix. Teenage Hamilton—who’d been working on the island as a clerk— the disaster in a letter that was eventually published in The Royal Danish American Gazette美女视频黄频大全视频, writing, “It seemed as if a total dissolution of nature was taking place.” Little did Hamilton realize that these words were about to change his life forever. Blown away by the letter, readers quickly organized a scholarship fund for this talented young scribe. Before long, Alexander Hamilton found himself en route to King’s College (now Columbia University) in New York City.

Essay writing wasn’t his only literary passion. A number of have also been attributed to Hamilton. When a dear friend’s 2-year-old daughter passed away in 1774, he eulogized her in a touching tribute “Poem on the Death of Elias Boudinot’s Child.” Another piece helped Hamilton win over his bride-to-be, Eliza Schuyler. As they courted, he sent a tender sonnet to the object of his affection. Eliza liked it so much that she placed the poem in a little bag and around her neck.

3. The oldest unit in the United States Army is Hamilton's.

According to the , “Battery D, 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery, 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized), traces its lineage to Hamilton’s Revolutionary War artillery company and is the oldest serving unit in the regular army.” On March 17, 1776, Hamilton was made captain of the group, and under his leadership, it saw action in several key moments—including the Battles of White Plains and Princeton. Impressed by the young man’s valor, George Washington made him an aide-de-camp (with the rank of ) in 1777.

美女视频黄频大全视频The father of our country couldn’t have picked a better man. In Hamilton, Washington found an energetic writer who was fluent in French and just so happened to share most of the General’s political views. Over the next few years, these assets made Hamilton an indispensable employee. Still, as time went by, he grew tired of essentially serving as a high-status clerk. In 1781, the aide-de-camp resigned from Washington’s inner circle. Afterward, Hamilton was put in charge of a new battalion and would pull off an impressive night attack against British forces at the decisive Battle of Yorktown.

4. He and Aaron Burr occasionally collaborated.


 // Public Domain

In postwar Manhattan, the future dueling partners were two of the Big Apple’s top lawyers. With the Revolution over, Burr and Hamilton paid their bills by practicing law. Clients gravitated toward the two decorated veterans from all directions, and Hamilton and Burr faced off in a number of legal showdowns. Every so often, though, they’d on the same criminal or civil case—including  (1800), which is recognized as the first U.S. murder trial for which we have a formal record. 

美女视频黄频大全视频In December 1799, a young woman named Gulielma Sands mysteriously vanished. Eleven days later, her body was found at the bottom of a Manhattan well. Fingers were immediately pointed at Levi Weeks. Both the carpenter and Sands lived in a boarding house owned by Sands's relatives, and Weeks had been courting her.

In the court of public opinion, Weeks was guilty. Luckily for the carpenter, though, his older brother had friends in high places. Ezra Weeks was an architect who had supervised the construction of Hamilton’s Convent Avenue. He’d also done business with the Burr-founded —which, incidentally, owned the well where Sands’s body was found.

(Created as a means of providing “pure and wholesome” water to New Yorkers, Burr launched The Manhattan Company with some from Hamilton. The bill Burr would eventually put before the state legislature wasn't the same one that Hamilton saw, however; Burr's true intention for the company wasn't to provide water but to a bank that would allow him to sway future elections. The bill passed and the bank was formed; in the 1950s, it merged with Chase Bank and today as JPMorgan Chase & Co. The company the guns used in Burr and Hamilton's duel.)

Burr, Hamilton, and (who later became a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice) formed Levi Weeks’s defense team. In a two-day trial, they the state’s purely circumstantial case against their client, and the carpenter was found innocent. Eventually, Weeks moved to Natchez, Mississippi, where the accused murderer reinvented himself as an esteemed southern architect. 

5. Vermont found an ally in Hamilton.

美女视频黄频大全视频When Vermont declared its independent statehood in 1777, it upset certain New York industrialists, who considered Vermont to be a part of . For decades, New York and New Hampshire both tried to claim the area. So, in 1764, His Majesty that everything west of the Connecticut River (Vermont and the granite state’s current border) belonged to New York. 

美女视频黄频大全视频There was just one problem: most Vermonters were former New Hampshirites. Upon assuming control, New York refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of land grants established there by New Hampshire transplants. Vermonters responded by taking up arms against their neighbors to the west. Local militias—including one called the Green Mountain Boys—repelled New York emigrants by force. 

美女视频黄频大全视频Then along came the American Revolution. In 1777, Vermont petitioned the Continental Congress to acknowledge its sovereignty as a state. Thanks to opposition from New York’s delegates, however, this didn’t happen. For the next 14 years, Vermont—unable to join the Union on its own terms—existed as an .

After the war, Congress refused to acknowledge the swath as anything other than a large chunk of New York. Thoroughly disgruntled, some locals lobbied to have their mini-nation absorbed by Canada.

美女视频黄频大全视频From Hamilton’s perspective, the prospect of a British-ruled Vermont  America’s security. In 1787, he was working as a New York state legislator. During his tenure, Hamilton presented a bill that would instruct New York’s Congressional representatives to recognize Vermont’s independence. This measure died in the State Senate, but, in the end, Hamilton was able to spearhead a settlement between New York and Vermont. With the empire state’s approval (and payment from Vermont to New York of $30,000), Vermont finally entered the Union in 1791.

6. It's believed that he authored most of the Federalist Papers.

Apart from his stint as America’s first Secretary of the Treasury, this is the political achievement for which Hamilton is best known. Published between 1787 and 1788, the 85 Federalist Papers essays urged New York’s electorate to ratify the recently-proposed U.S. Constitution. The influential  were written under the shared pseudonym Publius by Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Since none of them used their real names, we can’t be certain about how many papers each man wrote. Still, general consensus credits Hamilton with 51, Madison with 29, and Jay with five.

7. The last letter that George Washington ever wrote was addressed to Hamilton.


Getty Images

美女视频黄频大全视频Two days before he died, America’s first President sent a  to his former aide and cabinet member. Hamilton had recently argued that “a regular Military Academy” ought to be established, and his old mentor  the idea. In a 1799 letter that would be Washington’s last, the elder statesman told Hamilton that such a place would be “of primary importance to this country.”

8. He founded The New York Post.

Established by Hamilton in November 1801, the was originally known as The New York Evening Post. The founding father conceived his new publication as a megaphone for the anti-Jefferson Federalist Party—which he’d also created. Hamilton himself generated many of The Post’s early editorials. “He appoints a time when I may see him,” editor William Coleman explained, “… as soon as I see him, he begins in a deliberate manner to dictate and I to note down in shorthand; when he stops, my article is completed.”

9. His eldest son also died in a duel.

美女视频黄频大全视频Then-Vice President Aaron Burr shot Alexander Hamilton in Weehawken, New Jersey on July 11, 1804. It was almost a case of deja vu: Three years earlier, another Hamilton had died under eerily similar circumstances. 

Like his father,  was a bit quick-tempered. In 1801, the 19-year-old had a deadly run-in with George Eacker, a prominent Democratic-Republican lawyer. On July 4, Eacker delivered an Independence Day speech in which he not only denounced Alexander Hamilton, but asserted that the former Secretary of the Treasury would be willing to plot the violent overthrow of President Jefferson.

美女视频黄频大全视频From then on, Philip harbored a passionate grudge against Eacker. after the inflammatory address, the young Hamilton went to take in a show at New York’s Park Theater with his friend, Richard Price. Inside, they caught sight of Eacker. Bursting into his theater box, Hamilton and Price savagely heckled the attorney. Eacker—not wanting to disturb his fellow patrons—told them to meet him in the lobby, grumbling “It is too abominable to be publicly insulted by a set of damned rascals.”

美女视频黄频大全视频“Who do you call damned rascals?” the teenagers shouted. A fistfight might have broken out right then and there, but Eacker diffused the situation by suggesting they all cool off at a nearby tavern. But the change in scenery did nothing to calm anyone involved: Later that night, the lawyer received a curt letter from Price challenging him to a duel. 

The ensuing Price-Eacker standoff was an uneventful affair, with both men failing to shoot their opponent. In the bloodless duel’s wake, Philip hoped that he might persuade Eacker to take back his insulting comments if he, too, apologized. Instead, Eacker flatly . Feeling that his honor had been intolerably attacked, Philip felt he had no choice but to issue a dueling challenge of his own—which the angry Jeffersonian accepted. 

Both combatants arrived at Weehawken on November 23. Each came brandishing a pistol provided by Alexander’s brother-in-law, John Baker Church. After the smoke cleared, Eacker would walk away unharmed—Philip would not. A bullet entered the young Hamilton above his right hip, tearing clear through to the left arm. Mortally wounded, Philip died the next day.

美女视频黄频大全视频By all accounts, Alexander Hamilton was never the same man after his son’s untimely demise. When Burr and Hamilton met to settle their own score, they used the pistols from Philip’s duel.  

10. Theodore Roosevelt was a big fan.

Telescope Teddy was fascinated by . In TR’s mind, this founding father stood tall as “the most brilliant American statesman who ever lived, possessing the loftiest and keenest intellect of his time.” Moreover, Roosevelt saw in Hamilton “the touch of the heroic, the touch of the purple, the touch of the gallant.” Our 26th President even found time to study the man while sitting in the Oval Office. Roosevelt read 1906’s Alexander Hamilton, An Essay on The American Union by historian Fredrick Scott Oliver. Before long, he was praising the book to Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, Secretary of State Elihu Root, and Whitelaw Reid, America’s ambassador to the U.K.

Did you know that Alexander Hamilton biographer Ron Chernow rapped the entire introductory track to the Hamilton soundtrack during his keynote speech at Lafayette College’s commencement in 2017? Head here to find out more facts about Hamilton, the musical he inspired, and how his wife helped preserve his legacy.

Wayfair Is Offering Up to 65 Percent Off Air Conditioners, Robot Vacuums, and Other Appliances for a Limited Time

KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair
KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair

is a one-stop online shop for just about anything you could ever need for your home, and this year, the company is getting a jump on Memorial Day sales by taking up to major appliances from now until May 28. Here, shoppers will find discounts on everything from to . These savings won't last forever, so to help you get started on your shopping, we pulled together some of our favorite deals, which you can check out below.

Small Kitchen Appliances

A KitchenAid blender.
KitchenAid/Wayfair

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A mini fridge that's available on Wayfair.
Daewoo/Wayfair

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A bObsweep vacuum that's available ay Wayfair.
bObsweep/Amazon

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At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

At the Height of the 1918 Flu Pandemic, the Anti-Mask League of San Francisco Formed to Protest PPE

These New York tram conductors, photographed during the 1918 influenza, don't seem interested in joining any Anti-Mask League.
These New York tram conductors, photographed during the 1918 influenza, don't seem interested in joining any Anti-Mask League.
National Archives and Records Administration, // Public Domain

In January 1919, San Francisco residents received some bad news: The second wave of the 1918 influenza was rolling through the city, and masks were mandatory once again.

They already knew the drill. On October 24, 1918, Mayor James Rolph, health officer Dr. William C. Hassler, and other authorities had mandated protective masks to prevent the spread of the disease, and the general public had quickly recognized the practice as a matter of life and death.

“A week ago I laughed at the idea of the mask,“ local Red Cross chairman John A. Britton the San Francisco Chronicle美女视频黄频大全视频 at the time. “I wanted to be independent. I did not realize that the cost of such independence was the lives of others.”

While most San Franciscans rose to the occasion and volunteers organized mask-sewing events, there were still some staunch dissenters. Law enforcement officers doled out $5 fines for anyone who went mask-less in public, and a couple hundred people who failed to comply were even carted off to jail.

“John Raggi, arrested on Columbus Avenue, said he did not wear a mask because he did not believe in masks or ordinances, or even jail,” an article in the San Francisco Chronicle美女视频黄频大全视频 read. “He now has no occasion to disbelieve in jails. He is in the city prison.”

When Rolph declared that the worst had passed and lifted the mask ordinance in November, people jubilantly tore off their various face coverings and tossed them into the air. By the time Rolph reinstated the rules in January, everyone was used to breathing freely and many were reluctant to return to a masked existence. Thus, the Anti-Mask League was born.

The league was chaired by Emma Harrington, a lawyer who also happened to have become San Francisco’s first female voter in 1911. Two thousand people attended the inaugural meeting, but city officials weren’t intimidated by the size of the opposition.

“We cannot in this matter pay any attention to any public agitators against the mask for the obvious reason that the question is one of public health and not of like or dislike of the mask,” Arthur H. Barendt, president of the San Francisco Board of Health, told the press.

Though the Anti-Mask League continued to meet throughout the month, participants never really landed on a common, actionable goal. The Washington Post, some people wanted to organize a petition to repeal the mask mandate, while others were simply demanding that Hassler be fired. Meanwhile, the masks did seem to be helping the city flatten the curve. On January 15, 1919—the day before health officials issued their second decree—there were 510 new flu cases and 50 deaths. On January 26, those numbers had plummeted to 12 and four, respectively.

美女视频黄频大全视频At the league’s last gathering, having accomplished nothing, members replaced Harrington with a new chairwoman, and the meeting devolved into a state of such chaos that William Scott, who had rented the hall, simply shut off all the lights. The Anti-Mask League never recovered from that ill-fated assembly, but they didn’t need to—on February 1, city officials did away with the mask requirements for the second and final time.

[h/t ]