美女视频黄频大全视频

From Inedible to Indispensable: When a Quack Doctor Touted Tomatoes as a Medical Cure-All

nito100/iStock via Getty Images
nito100/iStock via Getty Images

Americans who opened a magazine or newspaper in the late 1930s stood a good chance of seeing an editorial or advertisement that took them by surprise. Buried in the pages of agricultural and gardening journals and other publications were editorials and ads the health benefits of tomatoes. Up until just before that time, most of the northern parts of the United States considered tomatoes virtually inedible—and were scared off by their resemblance to the poisonous nightshade berry. Some gardeners planted them exclusively for decorative purposes.

But now seemingly reputable authorities like physician John Cook Bennett were touting the miracle properties of the fruit (yes, a tomato is a fruit—technically). Tomatoes, Bennett claimed, could ease diarrhea, dyspepsia, indigestion, and even cholera. It could counteract the “violent bilious attacks” brought about by traveling. Barring more investigative research, there might not be any limit to what tomatoes could do for a person’s constitution.

Little by little, Bennett’s enthusiastic endorsement took hold. Before long, hundreds of thousands of people were buying pills that claimed to have “extract of tomato.” In the span of just a couple of decades, the tomato went from being considered toxic to nature’s most valued medicine.

 

Bennett was, of course, a quack.美女视频黄频大全视频 Like many self-endorsed medical experts of the 19th century, he had precious little objective data to go on. Though he did indeed a medical degree in 1825 and practiced in Ohio, his credibility was strained when he began selling degrees for $10.

Operating a diploma mill did not prevent him from becoming a professor of midwifery and president of the Willoughby Medical College of Lake Erie University in 1835, where his first lecture was devoted to his pet topic: tomatoes. Bennett claimed he had visited the "Scotch and French Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons" in Montreal and was struck by their hearty endorsement of the tomato, which was given to “convalescent persons” to increase their wellness. The tomato, which originated in South America and came to Europe sometime in the 16th century before becoming known in America in the 1800s, was not normally perceived as desirable either as food or as medicine. At the time, some southern states enjoyed the vegetable, but it remained more of a mystery in northern states.

A vintage advertisement promoting tomatoes
rtguest/iStock via Getty Images

Convinced the American public was missing out, Bennett became a tomato evangelist, circulating a transcript of his lecture to various publications both locally and nationally. (Though he was not the first: Physician Thomas Sewall gave a lecture in Washington in 1825 crediting Virginia farmers with growing the beneficial vegetable. Writer also sang the tomato’s praises in 1831, though he died right after his pro-tomato article was published.) The reason periodicals like the Cleveland Herald and the Maine Farmer seemed to be interested in his argument was that there was a sharp juxtaposition in the public perception of the tomato as harmful with his hearty endorsement of it.

Bennett, who could hardly profit personally from his salesmanship but instead seemed to approach it with a degree of altruism, continued. Tomatoes could ease stomach problems, the aches of rheumatism, and more. Citing his “thorough study” of ancient texts, Bennett claimed he could find no evidence that the tomato was absent in any part of the world. He published recipes for tomatoes, including tomato sauce, tomato pickles, raw tomatoes, and the not-terribly-healthy suggestion of frying them in butter. He suggested people make ketchup using tomatoes at a time most ketchup was with fish or mushrooms. He approached hucksters like Archibald Miles, who sold an ill-defined American Hygiene Pill, and advised he would be better off calling it a Tomato Extract pill.

Bennett was right. Miles had wild success with the pills, which he dubbed Dr. Miles’ Compound Extract of Tomato. So did Guy Phelps, a Yale medical school graduate who marketed similar pills. Debuting in 1837, the pills and their many copycats were devoured by people who had been sold on the attributes of tomatoes by Bennett. (Rather than cure diarrhea, however, some of the pills were cut with .)

Despite his advice to Phelps, Bennett himself didn’t seem to be a huge believer in tomato compounds and held the forward-thinking philosophy that they should be consumed whole for the greatest benefit. “Now, if the virtue is in the tomato,” he wrote, “why not give it in its simple state uncompounded? If it is in the medicines compounded with it, why not leave it out entirely? I contend that the tomato itself, uncompounded, possesses all the virtue I have ascribed to it, as I shall hereafter show. The simple extract or essence should be administered where it is indicated, and all compounds be rejected.”

But Bennett’s advice had to overcome a public appetite for convenience. By 1840, many pills purporting to be healthy were said to contain tomato, though it’s impossible to know how many peddlers actually bothered inserting any kind of extract or compound in their ingredients. Pharmacies put up signs broadcasting that tomato products were sold there. That same year, Bennett moved to Illinois and befriended Mormon leader , who took his endorsement to heart. Word spread in the Mormon community of the tomato's benefits.

Naturally, there was criticism from the medical community, which began circulating word in 1840 that many of these “tomato pills” contained no actual tomato. Even some agricultural outlets refused to be swayed, with The American Agriculturalist dismissing Bennett’s actions, writing that “the whole thing savors of the most arrant quackery.” That didn’t stop newspapers from picking up on the hype and exhorting the virtues of the vegetable itself. One 1843 article in the Boston Cultivator美女视频黄频大全视频 documented a of a dyspepsia patient who turned his life around:

“We knew an instance of a very severe case of dyspepsia, of ten years standing, cured by the use of the tomato. The patient had been unable to get any relief; he could eat no fresh meat, nor boiled vegetables. Reading an account of the virtues of the tomato, he raised some, and used them as food in the fall, stewed, and made some in a jelly for winter use. He was cured.”

 

Aside from a caution against “unrestrained indulgence,” as though people might eat bushel after bushel of tomatoes in pursuit of health, no real anti-tomato contingent ever emerged. Articles recommended people might consider tomatoes three times daily with every meal. Cholera suffers might be revived.

The tomato pill craze lasted through 1850, at which point American consumers had grown comfortable enough with whole tomatoes in their meals and in ketchup that a supplement held little appeal. Bennett, who had espoused the benefits of the vegetable, is still seen as being primarily responsible for the general American public’s acceptance of the tomato, which still had some growing pains ahead: Early ketchup bottlers prior to the 1876 debut of the Heinz company weren’t terribly hygienic, selling rotten product.

Tomatoes are pictured
John Cook Bennett declared tomatoes could cure many maladies.
asadykov/iStock via Getty Images

Today, tomatoes are considered rich in , a natural antioxidant that may have some effect against heart disease. While they’re not the catch-all miracle cure Bennett proclaimed, at least he was on to something, which is more than can be said for some of the other health fads 美女视频黄频大全视频of the era ... like opium. In professing the ethically dubious benefits of the vegetable, the doctor managed to reframe the tomato from a hated and possibly toxic plant to a staple of the American diet. Just not one that could cure diseases.

The 10 Best Memorial Day 2020 Sales

iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth
iRobot,GoWise,Funko via Wayfair, Entertainment Earth

美女视频黄频大全视频The Memorial Day sales have started early this year, and it's easy to find yourself drowning in offers for cheap mattresses, appliances, shoes, and grills. To help you cut through the noise and focus on the best deals around, we threw together some of our favorite Memorial Day sales going on right now. Take a look below.

1. Leesa

A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
A Leesa Hybrid mattress.
Leesa

Through May 31, you can save up to $400 on every mattress model Leesa has to offer, from the value-minded Studio by Leesa design to the premium Leesa Legend, which touts a combination of memory foam and micro-coil springs to keep you comfortable in any position you sleep in.

Find it:

2. Sur La Table

美女视频黄频大全视频This one is labeled as simply a “summer sale,” but the deals are good only through Memorial Day, so you should get to it quickly. This sale takes up to 20 percent off outdoor grilling and dining essentials, like cast-iron shrimp pans (), a stainless steel burger-grilling basket (), and, of course, your to go along with it.

Find it:

3. Wayfair

KitchenAid Stand Mixer on Sale on Wayfair.
Wayfair/KitchenAid

Wayfair is cutting prices on all manner of appliances until May 28. Though you can pretty much find any home appliance imaginable at a low price, the sale is highlighted by a KitchenAid stand mixer and this eight-in-one GoWise air fryer.

美女视频黄频大全视频And that’s only part of the brand’s multiple Memorial Day sales, which you can browse . They’re also taking up to refrigerators and washing machines, up to living room furniture, and up to .

Find it:

4. Blue Apron

If you sign up for a Blue Apron subscription before May 26, you’ll save $20 on each of your first three box deliveries, totaling $60 in savings. 

Find it:

5. The PBS Store

Score 20 percent off sitewide at when you use the promo code TAKE20. This slashes prices on everything from documentaries like Ken Burns’s The Roosevelt: An Intimate History ( and The Civil War () to a Pride & Prejudice美女视频黄频大全视频 tote bag () and this precious heat-changing King Henry VIII mug () that reveals the fates of his many wives when you pour your morning coffee.

Find it:

6. Amazon

eufy robot vacuum.
Amazon/eufy

美女视频黄频大全视频While Amazon doesn’t have an official Memorial Day sale, the ecommerce giant still has plenty of ever-changing deals to pick from. Right now, you can take this outdoor grill from Weber, a eufy robot vacuum, and  the ASUS gaming laptop. For more deals, just go to and have a look around.

7. Backcountry

You can save up to 50 percent on tents, hiking packs, outdoor wear, and more from brands like Patagonia, Marmot, and others during Backcountry's Memorial Day sale.

Find it:

8. Entertainment Earth

Funko Pops on Sale on Entertainment Earth.
Entertainment Earth/Funko

From now until June 2, Entertainment Earth is having a buy one, get one half off sale on select Funko Pops. This includes stalwarts like the and lines, and more recent additions like the and the for the upcoming X-Men movie line.

Find it:

9. Moosejaw

美女视频黄频大全视频With the promo code SUNSCREEN, you can take 20 percent off one full-price item at Moosejaw, along with finding up to 30 percent off select items during the outdoor brand's summer sale. These deals include casual clothing, outdoor wear, trail sneakers, and more. 

Find it:

10. Osprey

美女视频黄频大全视频Through May 25, you can save 25 percent on select summer items, and 40 percent off products from last season. This can include anything from hiking packs and luggage to outdoorsy socks and hats. So if you're planning on getting acquainted with the great outdoors this summer, now you can do it on the cheap.

Find it:

At Mental Floss, we only write about the products we love and want to share with our readers, so all products are chosen independently by our editors. Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a percentage of any sale made from the links on this page. Prices and availability are accurate as of the time of publication.

Chuck E. Cheese Disguises Itself as Pasqually's Pizza & Wings on Delivery Apps

gsheldon/iStock via Getty Images
gsheldon/iStock via Getty Images

Chuck E. Cheese is best known for its arcades, ball pits, and birthday parties—things that have become health hazards during the COVID-19 pandemic. The restaurant part of the chain is less beloved, but it's the only component of the business that's still allowed to operate under some capacity. To keep revenue flowing while doors are closed, Chuck E. Cheese has transitioned to delivery—but you won't see its name on GrubHub or Seamless. As reports, the chain is delivering food under the name Pasqually's Pizza & Wings to broaden its appeal.

Reddit user uncovered the sneaky rebranding after she placed an order from what she thought was a local pizzeria in Philadelphia. When her food arrived, it looked suspiciously familiar. A text to her delivery person revealed that the pizza had come from a Chuck E. Cheese location with signs for "Pasqually's Pizza & Wings" in windows. The Redditor did some research of her own and found that Pasqually's and Chuck E. Cheese shared an address, and that Pasqually P. Pieplate was the name of a fictional chef in Chuck E. Cheese's cast of characters.

Chuck E. Cheese denies any deception on their part. In a statement to Food & Wine, the company said that while Pasqually's "shares kitchen space with the Chuck E. Cheese restaurant," it's a distinct offshoot of the brand. They also claim that the product sold under the Pasqually's label "is a different pizza that features a thicker crust and extra sauce," compared to what's served in the arcades.

One way to avoid falling for misleading names in delivery apps is to look up restaurants and call them directly. This saves small business from paying , and it gives you a better idea of what you're getting. Of course, if you're feeling nostalgic for Chuck E. Cheese, a taste of their pizza美女视频黄频大全视频 at home may be just what you need—and now you know how to find them.

[h/t ]