美女视频黄频大全视频

When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone?

Prostock-Studio/iStock via Getty Images
Prostock-Studio/iStock via Getty Images

Shaking hands seems like a gesture that has been around forever. Indeed, a from the reign of ancient Assyria's in the 9th century BCE clearly shows two figures clasping hands. The , usually dated to the 8th century BCE, mentions that two characters “clasped each other's hands and pledged their faith.” Centuries later, Shakespeare in As You Like It that two characters “shook hands and swore brothers.” It might seem like shaking hands is an ancient custom, the roots of which are lost to the sands of time.

Except.

Historians who have pored over old etiquette books have noticed that handshaking in the modern sense of a greeting until the mid-19th century, when it was considered a slightly improper gesture that should only be used with friends []. But if Shakespeare was writing about shaking hands a few hundred years earlier, what happened?

Defining the Handshake

French Renaissance writer and satirist Francois Rabelais, (c.1494 - 1553), circa 1530. An engraving by Hinchliff after Mariette.
French Renaissance writer and satirist Francois Rabelais, circa 1530. An engraving by Hinchliff after Mariette.
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

to author Torbjörn Lundmark in his Tales of Hi and Bye: Greeting and Parting Rituals Around the World, the problem comes in differing definitions of the handshake. The early handshakes mentioned above were part of making deals or burying the hatchet; Shalmaneser III’s throne base references him a treaty with the Babylonian king during a revolt. In the Iliad美女视频黄频大全视频, Diomedes and Glaucus shook hands when they they were “guest-friends,” and Diomedes proclaimed “Let’s not try to kill each other.” Shakespeare was similarly settlement of a conflict.

The modern handshake as a form of greeting is harder to trace. Traditionally, the origins are often given to the . But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg—the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in a chapter of an anthology called A Cultural History of Gesture, “More than in any other field, that of the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues” [].

One of the earliest clues he cites is a 16th-century German translation of the French writer Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel美女视频黄频大全视频. When one character meets Gargantua, Rabelais writes (in one modern English ), “he was greeted with a thousand caresses, a thousand embraces, a thousand good-days.” But according to Roodenburg, the 16th-century German translation adds references to shaking hands. Roodenburg argues that if the translator adapted Rabelais to his audience, that’s an indication for an early handshaking tradition.

There's additional evidence for a handshaking tradition in that era: In 1607 the author James Cleland ( to have been a Scotsman living in England) proclaimed that instead of things like bowing down to everyone’s shoes and kissing hands, he’d rather “retaine our good olde Scottish shaking of the two right hands togither at meeting with an vncouered head" [].

Handshaking—Back to the Future

A popular hypothesis suggests that Cleland’s statements against bowing were actually a wish to go back to a potentially very traditional (though poorly recorded) method of greeting in Europe. As the centuries progressed, handshaking was replaced by more ‘hierarchical’ ways of greeting—like bowing. According to Roodenburg, handshaking survived in a few niches, like in Dutch towns where they’d use the gesture to reconcile after disagreements. , the Quakers—who valued equality—also made use of the handshake. Then, as the hierarchies of the continent weakened, the handshake re-emerged as a standard greeting among equals—the way it remains today.

Not everyone fell in love with the handshake, however. According to an article from , “the usage has found its way into other nations, but so contrary is it to their instinct, that, in France, for example, a society has been recently formed to abolish ‘le shake-hands美女视频黄频大全视频’ as a vulgar English innovation.”

As for why美女视频黄频大全视频 shaking hands was deemed a good method of greeting, rather than some other gesture, the explanation is that it incapacitates the right hand, making it useless for weapon holding. In the 19th century it was argued that shaking hands without removing gloves was quite rude and required an immediate apology. One 1870 text that this “idea would also seem to be an occult remnant of the old notion that the glove might conceal a weapon.”

美女视频黄频大全视频Sadly, in a world where obscure Rabelais translations provide critical evidence, the true reason may remain forever elusive.

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What's the Story Behind Cinco de Mayo?

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Cinco de Mayo, or May 5, is recognized around the country as a time to celebrate Mexico’s cultural heritage. Like a lot of days earmarked to commemorate a specific idea or event, its origins can be a little murky. Who started it, and why?

美女视频黄频大全视频The holiday was originally set aside to commemorate Mexico’s victory over France at the Battle of Puebla in 1862. The two had gotten into a dispute after newly-elected Mexico president Benito Juárez to help ease the country’s financial woes by defaulting on European loans. Unmoved by their plight, France attempted to seize control of their land. The Napoleon III-led country sent 6000 troops to Puebla de Los Angeles, a small town en route to Mexico City, and anticipated an easy victory.

After an entire day of battle that saw 2000 Mexican soldiers take 500 enemy lives against only 100 casualties, France retreated. That May 5, Mexico had proven itself to be a formidable and durable opponent. (The victory would be short-lived, as the French would eventually conquer Mexico City. In 1866, Mexican and U.S. forces were able to out.)

To celebrate, Juárez declared May 5, or Cinco de Mayo, to be a national holiday. Puebla began acknowledging the date, with recognition spreading throughout Mexico and in the Latino population of California, which victory over the same kind of oppressive regime facing minorities in Civil War-era America. In fact, University of California at Los Angeles professor David Hayes-Bautista his research into newspapers of the era as evidence that Cinco de Mayo really took off in the U.S. due to the parallels between the Confederacy and the monarchy Napoleon III had planned to install.

Cinco de Mayo gained in the U.S. in the middle part of the 20th century thanks to the Good Neighbor Policy, a political movement by Franklin Roosevelt beginning in 1933, which encouraged friendly relations between countries.

There’s a difference between a day of remembrance and a corporate clothesline, however. Cinco de Mayo was co-opted for the latter beginning in the 1970s, when beer and liquor companies decided to promote consumption of their products while enjoying the party atmosphere of the date—hence the flowing margaritas. And while it may surprise some Americans, Cinco de Mayo isn’t quite as big a deal in Mexico as it can be in the States. While Mexican citizens recognize it, it’s not a federal holiday: Celebrants can still get to post offices and banks.

Why Are So Many Farmhouses Painted White?

DelmasLehman/iStock via Getty Images
DelmasLehman/iStock via Getty Images

When Aunt Polly Tom Sawyer with whitewashing the fence in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, she’s not merely trying to spruce up the property with a little redecoration scheme.

美女视频黄频大全视频As Simplemost , whitewashing a surface isn’t exactly the same as just painting it white—though it does bleach that surface bright white. Whitewash is a slaked lime-based liquid that prevents mildew, fights odors, repels insects, and even works as a mild antibacterial substance. It’s also inexpensive, quick-drying, and easy to apply—making it a perfect chore to delegate to your young, mischievous nephew. Because of all these factors, whitewashing farmhouses and fences became a popular trend among colonial homeowners, especially those who lived in humid climates.

美女视频黄频大全视频According to the , all it took to create your own whitewash was water and lime (a white powdery compound also known as ). When combined, the mixture would bubble up and emit steam before settling into a white, paint-like substance. Rural families often had sacks of lime on hand, since it was also used as a disinfectant, an ingredient in livestock feed, and a way to temper soil acidity.

美女视频黄频大全视频Despite its many advantages, whitewash had one drawback: It wasn’t especially long-lasting. As time went on, wealthier people transitioned to using regular white paint, which didn’t require frequent touch-ups and eventually came to serve as a status symbol.

It may have been extra common for farm owners to take advantage of the cheap, efficient method of painting their property, but they weren’t the only ones. The White House was originally whitewashed, too, which inspired its now-official nickname.

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