美女视频黄频大全视频

12 Amazing Facts About Catherine the Great

By Vigilius Eriksen, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
By , ,

Catherine the Great moved to a foreign land as a teenager and became one of the most important leaders in its history. During her 34-year reign, she transformed Russia’s culture while expanding its borders. Here's what you need to know about the unlikely ruler, who is the subject of not one, but two new series: HBO's 美女视频黄频大全视频, which debuted in late 2019, and Hulu's , which is streaming on Hulu now.

1. Catherine the Great's name wasn't Catherine.

美女视频黄频大全视频The woman who would become Catherine the Great was Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst on April 21, 1729 (Julian Calendar) in Stettin, Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland). She was the daughter of Christian August, a minor German prince and general in the Prussian army, and Princess Johanna Elisabeth, who had connections to the Russian royal family.

Despite being a princess herself, young Sophie wasn’t exactly a top-tier member of the European nobility. But thanks to her mother’s campaigning, she was chosen to marry Karl Peter Ulrich (later known as Tsar Peter III), heir to the Russian throne. The couple wed on August 21, 1745. Sophie to Russian Orthodoxy—despite her Lutheran father’s objections—and took on a new Russian name: Ekaterina, or “Catherine.” Her official title would be Empress Catherine II ('s second wife had been Empress Catherine I).

2. Catherine the Great's marriage to Peter the III was rocky.

The wedding of Wedding of Peter III and Catherine II of Russia
G.A. Kachalov, Public Domain // Wikimedia Commons

Catherine and Peter were an ill-matched pair: Catherine was bright and ambitious whereas Peter, to Britannica, was "mentally feeble." Catherine didn’t like him: “Peter III had no greater enemy than himself; all his actions bordered on insanity,” she in 1789. Her memoirs portray the Tsar as a drunk, a simpleton, and somebody who “took pleasure in beating men and animals.” Whether these statements are accurate or not, Catherine and her spouse were clearly unhappy, and they both had extramarital affairs. Catherine had at least three affairs, and that none of her children were her husband's.

3. Catherine the Great overthrew Peter the III so that she could rule.

Peter III assumed the throne on January 5, 1762, and was immediately unpopular. He enraged the military by pulling out of the Seven Years’ War and making big concessions to Russia’s adversaries in the process.

美女视频黄频大全视频Eventually, Catherine believed that Peter was going to divorce her—so she worked with her lover, Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov, and her other allies to overthrow him and take the throne for herself. In July 1762, just after he took the throne, Peter III was deposed in a coup d'état. Eight days later, he was while in the custody of one of Catherine's co-conspirators.

美女视频黄频大全视频With Peter out of the picture, Catherine became the new empress of Russia. She was formally on September 22, 1762. She never married again, and took during her long reign.

4. Voltaire was basically Catherine the Great's pen pal.

Catherine, a bibliophile, built up a collection of . Early in her reign, she began a correspondence with one of her favorite authors: The great Enlightenment philosopher . Russia fascinated Voltaire, who had written a biography of Peter the Great. Catherine would never get the chance to meet him in person, but through these letters, she and Voltaire discussed everything from disease prevention to Catherine's love of English gardens.

5. Catherine the Great annexed Crimea.

Russian interest in the Crimean Peninsula long predates Vladimir Putin. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1768 to 1774, Catherine the landmass, thus strengthening Russia’s presence on the Black Sea. And her conquests didn’t end there. Over 200,000 square miles of new territory was to the Russian empire during Catherine’s rule. Much of it was acquired when the once-independent nation of was divided between Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Tsarina Catherine’s slice contained portions of modern-day Lithuania, Latvia, and Ukraine.

6. Great Britain asked for Catherine the Great's help when the Revolutionary War broke out.

美女视频黄频大全视频In 1775, the Earl of Dartmouth approached Catherine with a for 20,000 Russian troops to help Britain put down the colonial rebellion in America. She refused. As the war continued, British diplomats kept trying to establish an alliance with Russia, hoping that the Empress would either send military aid or, failing that, pressure France into the American cause. Catherine did neither. However, out of concern for Russian shipping interests in the Atlantic (and elsewhere), she did attempt to mediate an end to the violence between Britain and its rebellious colonies in 1780.

7. Alaska was colonized on Catherine the Great's watch.

Russian explorers had been visiting Alaska since 1741, but the empire didn’t set up its first permanent colony there until 1784, when merchant Grigory Shelikhov sailed to Kodiak Island and established the . Later, in 1788, he visited Catherine in St. Petersburg and asked if she’d give his company a monopoly over the area’s lucrative fur trade. She denied his request, but the explorer for “[discovering] new lands and peoples for the benefit of the state.” Russia’s colonial presence in North America would continue long after Catherine’s death—and it wasn’t limited美女视频黄频大全视频 to Alaska.

8. Catherine the Great embraced inoculation.

An illustration of Catherine the Great.
iStock.com/traveler1116

Thomas Dimsdale, an English physician, built upon an existing technique for immunizing people to smallpox. The technique involved finding a carrier of the ailment, then a blade dipped in a very, very small amount of "the unripe, crude or watery matter" from that person's pustules and injecting it into the patient’s body. In 18th century Russia, smallpox claimed millions of lives, so Catherine was eager to see if Dimsdale’s strategy worked. At her invitation, he came to Russia and quietly inoculated the empress. The procedure was a success, and with the Tsarina’s encouragement, Dimsdale inoculated about 150 members of the nobility. Before the end of the century, approximately had received smallpox inoculations.

9. A rebel claimed to be Catherine the Great's dead husband.

Catherine’s Enlightenment-fueled beliefs didn't lead to the demise of . According to Marc Raeff in his Catherine the Great: A Profile, "During her reign it was possible to buy and sell serfs with or without land, buy whole families or individuals, transact sales on the estate or marketplace; contemporaries termed all this ‘veritable slavery.'”

美女视频黄频大全视频The unjust arrangement triggered 160 documented peasant uprisings in the first 10 years of Catherine’s reign. The best known of them was Pugachev’s Rebellion (1773-1775) [], which was organized by Yemelyan Pugachev, a veteran of the Russo-Turkish wars. To win support, he introduced himself as Catherine’s deposed and deceased spouse, Peter III (even though Pugachev looked nothing like Peter). Pugachev and his followers enjoyed some big military victories early on, but after a crushing defeat in August 1774, their revolution fell apart. Pugachev was captured and executed in Moscow on January 10, 1775.

10. Catherine the Great's art collection was the basis of St. Petersburg's State Hermitage Museum.

美女视频黄频大全视频In 1764, Catherine purchased a set of 225 paintings—including works by Rembrandt and Frans Hals—from a , and founded the Hermitage with those works. Catherine went on to buy or commission thousands of for her budding museum. Today, the State Hermitage Museum has more than in its collections.

11. Catherine the Great was Russia's longest-serving female leader.

美女视频黄频大全视频Thirty-four years after assuming the throne, Catherine passed away on November 6, 1796. The monarch was succeeded by her son, Tsar Paul I.

12. Wild rumors flew after Catherine the Great's death—including that one about the horse.

A lot of rumors sprung up in the wake of Catherin's death. One that she had died while on the toilet, while another—the most persistent tale, and a completely unfounded one— that Catherine the Great was crushed to death while attempting to have sex with a stallion. Where exactly the story came from is ; an determined that the empress had actually died of a cerebral stroke.

Wayfair Is Offering Up to 65 Percent Off Air Conditioners, Robot Vacuums, and Other Appliances for a Limited Time

KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair
KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair

is a one-stop online shop for just about anything you could ever need for your home, and this year, the company is getting a jump on Memorial Day sales美女视频黄频大全视频 by taking up to major appliances from now until May 28. Here, shoppers will find discounts on everything from to . These savings won't last forever, so to help you get started on your shopping, we pulled together some of our favorite deals, which you can check out below.

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A KitchenAid blender.
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15 Female Explorers You Should Know

Amelia Earhart operating the controls of a flying laboratory in 1935.
Amelia Earhart operating the controls of a flying laboratory in 1935.
Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

You've heard of Christopher Columbus, Lawrence of Arabia, and Lewis and Clark. But do you know the incredible accomplishments of Gertrude Bell, Osa Johnson, or Valentina Tereshkova? In the female sect of explorers, there are heiresses, socialites, rebels, and cross-dressers. But the one thing they share beyond their sex is an intrepid spirit that thirsts for adventure.

1. Gertrude Bell

Gertrude Bell (second from left, second row) and the Members of the Mesopotamia Commission
Gertrude Bell (second from left, second row) and the Members of the Mesopotamia Commission
General Photographic Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

A contemporary and colleague of T.E. Lawrence (a.k.a. the inspiration for Lawrence of Arabia), was a writer and archaeologist who traveled all around the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. Her books gave the people of Great Britain a clear concept of the empire's outer territories and are still studied today.

美女视频黄频大全视频An Oxford graduate who was fluent in Persian and Arabic, she met Lawrence while working in the Arab Bureau in Cairo during World War I. She's best known for her contribution to the Conference in Cairo in 1921, where the beginnings of Iraq as a nation were forged. She'd later pioneer the school of thought that relics and antiquities should be preserved in their home nations. The National Museum of Iraq was born from her efforts.

2. Nellie Bly

A portrait of Nellie Bly
Nellie Bly was a journalist known for her exposé of the Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell's Island.
H. J. Myers, photographer, // Public domain

American journalist (a.k.a. Elizabeth Jane Cochrane) is best known for her world-changing exposé for which she went undercover to reveal the abuse going on at Women's Lunatic Asylum on Blackwell's Island. But on , Bly took on a new challenge for Joseph Pulitzer's paper,The New York World.

Inspired by Jules Verne's novel Around the World in 80 Days, Bly set out to beat the fictional globetrotting record. Traveling in ships, trains, and rickshaws, on horseback and on mules, Bly made her way from England to France, Singapore to Japan, and California back to the East Coast. And she did all this in 72 days. Well, 72 days, 6 hours, 11 minutes and 14 seconds to be precise. Naturally, Bly's bold endeavor made for a series of thrilling news stories, as well as a memoir—.

3. Isabella Bird

A portrait of Isabella Bird.
Isabella Bird traveled around the world.
G.P. Putnam's Sons, // Public Domain

A prolific author and fearless traveler, thwarted social convention and her own sickly nature by traveling about the world at will, and often alone. "The English Bird" wrote after coming to the United States in 1854. From there, she traveled to Australia and then Hawaii, where she trekked up an active volcano. She the Rocky Mountains in Colorado before traveling to Japan, China, Indonesia, Morocco, and the Middle East. This resulted in books like The Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains, Unbeaten Tracks in Japan, and The Yangtze Valley and Beyond. For all her incredible contributions, into the Royal Geographical Society of London in 1892. She was the first woman ever to earn the honor.

4. Fanny Bullock Workman

A photo of Fanny Bullock Workman posing while wearing mountain climbing gear.
Fanny Bullock Workman wearing mountain climbing gear.
Apic/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Traveling with her husband William Hunter Workman, M.D., this American mountaineer broke a string of while becoming a noted geographer, cartographer, and travel writer. The Workmans both came from wealth, enabling them to go on extravagant and arduous trips, like through Spain and India and treks up the Himalayas.

A shameless self-promoter, Workman earned a reputation for riling her rivals. But her dedication to detailing her accomplishments with precise measurements and thorough documentation meant she could back up her big mouth. Fanny was a compelling orator who became the first American woman to lecture at the Sorbonne in Paris, and the second female explorer ever allowed to address—and later —the Royal Geographical Society of London.

5. Jeanne Baré

Imagined portrait of Jeanne Baret dressed as a sailor, dating from 1817, after her death
Imagined portrait of Jeanne Baré dressed as a sailor.
// Public Domain

A French sailor and botanist in the 1700s, Jeanne Baré美女视频黄频大全视频 was the first woman to circumnavigate the world. However, she did it disguised as a man, a ruse that kept her close to her love, Philibert de Commerson. The two met over a shared passion for botany. First she was the teacher to the widowed man's children, then his assistant, and later his lover.

When Commerson scored a commission from the French government to sail the world and conduct research, the couple conspired to hide Baré's gender by dressing her as a man, "Jean." It worked for more than a year, but when the crew hit the South Pacific, some islanders uncovered the truth, though vary. When Baré returned to France, the Navy paid tribute to "this extraordinary woman" and her work of gathering new species of plants by giving her a pension of 200 livres a year.

6. Aimée Crocker

A picture of Aimee Crocker with her two children.
Aimee Crocker and her children.
// Public Domain

美女视频黄频大全视频An American railroad heiress born in 1864, Aimée Crocker was infamous for her lavish parties and long list of lovers and husbands. She was a frequent subject of society gossip and a proud friend of Oscar Wilde. But when the public attention became too much, Crocker took off on a tour of the Far East.

On route, she detoured to Hawaii, where she met King Kalākaua, who—according to her memoir was so enchanted with her that he gave her an island and the title Princess Palaikalani (which is said to translate to "Bliss of Heaven"). Crocker's book offers a slew of other outrageous encounters, including run-ins with headhunters in Borneo, a would-be murderer in Shanghai, and a sultry boa constrictor in India. After 10 years abroad, returned with wild tales, tattoos, a devotion to Buddhism, and a whole new allure for the high society of America.

7. Ida Pfeiffer

A portrait of Ida Pfeiffer.
Ida Pfeiffer was one of the world's first female explorers.
Adolf Dauthage, // Public domain

Though barred from the Royal Geographical Society of London because of her gender, is now celebrated as one of the world's first female explorers. She took to traveling once her children were grown, and frequently journeyed alone. Knowing the risk, she penned up her will before heading off on her first trip to the Holy Land. From there, she trekked to Istanbul, Jerusalem, and Giza, visiting the pyramids on camelback. On her return trip, she detoured through Italy.

美女视频黄频大全视频From these travels, Pfieffer published her first book in 1846. Its success funded her next exploration to Iceland and Scandinavia, which in turn became the subject of her next book. More trips were made to Brazil, China, India, Iraq, Borneo, and Indonesia. Her works would be translated into seven languages and earn her spots in the geographical societies of Berlin and Paris.

8. Sacagawea

A portrait of Sacagawea with Lewis and Clarke.
Sacagawea was an important member of the Corps of Discovery.
Edgar Samuel Paxson, // Public domain

All of the credit of the of 1800s America traditionally goes to its namesakes Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, but this Native American teen美女视频黄频大全视频 proved to be a crucial member of this Corps of Discovery. A member of the Lemhi Shoshone tribe, she and her trader husband Toussaint Charbonneau met Lewis and Clark while the explorers visited among the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes of North Dakota.

Joining their expedition with Charbonneau by her side and her newborn son Jean Baptiste on her back, she served as  when the party reached Southern Montana, where she grew up. With her help, the newly acquired territories of the West were explored and mapped, a crucial step in maintaining the United States' claim to them.

9. Osa Johnson

A picture of the traveler and filmmaker, Osa Johnson.
The traveler and filmmaker Osa Johnson.
George Eastman House, // Public domain

Born Osa Helen Leighty, this American explorer met her match in travel photographer Martin Johnson. The pair married May 15, 1910, and by 1917 they began traveling the globe together, making films to document their discoveries. Their boasted such provocative titles as Among the Cannibals of the South Pacific, Jungle Adventures, Headhunters of the South Seas, and Wonders of the Congo.

美女视频黄频大全视频They worked as a team. Martin shot pictures and film, while Osa hunted for food and when necessary defended her husband with her rifle. This was the case when a rhino in the wild full-on charged the pair. Osa brought it down, while Martin captured the entire encounter with his camera. The Johnsons promoted their films with lecture tours, and in 1940 Osa released the best-selling memoir . The Johnsons' films and photos can be seen in Disney's Animal Lodge and at the in their home state of .

10. Isabelle Eberhardt

A portrait of Isabelle Eberhardt, a Swiss explorer, only lived to be 27.
Isabelle Eberhardt, a Swiss explorer, only lived to be 27.
Apic/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

美女视频黄频大全视频Born in 1877 in Geneva the daughter of a Prussian aristocrat and an ex-priest turned anarchist, was fated to defy convention. She took to wearing men's clothes at an early age, and by 20 had converted to Islam. When she later began traveling alone through North Africa in the 1890s, she presented herself as a Muslim man named Si Mahmoud Saadi.

Eberhardt only lived to be 27; her life was cut short by a flash flood in a desert in 1904. Still, in her short life she participated in revolts against French colonialism, wrote travel essays for French magazines, survived an assassination attempt that nearly severed her arm, and smoke, drank, and had sex whenever and with whomever she liked. Much of this is documented in 美女视频黄频大全视频, which paint her as a creature of her own creation, formed between the Sahara and fearless sexual exploration.

11. Krystyna Chojnowska-Liskiewicz

A picture of Krystyna Chojnowska-Liskiewicz on a boat
Krystyna Chojnowska-Liskiewicz was known as the "First Lady of the Oceans."
// Public Domain

This Polish sea captain and shipbuilding engineer earned the title of "First Lady of the Oceans" when she became the first woman to sail solo around the world in 1976. On February 28th, left from the Canary Islands. Her ship Mazurek美女视频黄频大全视频 was built in Poland with its construction led by her husband. Her route took her through the Caribbean and the Panama Canal to the Pacific Ocean. From there, Chojnowska-Liskiewicz steered across the Indian Ocean and then down around Africa.

She returned to the Canary Islands on April 21, 1978, having traversed 31,166 nautical miles in 401 days. That meant more than a year with only herself as company and crew, preparing all her meals, maintaining the boat, and facing potential threats like storms, rough seas and even pirates alone. She said of her solo voyage, "Grown people should be aware that sometimes in life is lonely. But during the trip I was not plagued by loneliness. I was not lonely, but alone. There's a difference."

12. Amelia Earhart

A picture of Amelia Earhart in front of her bi-plane called "Friendship" in Newfoundland.
Amelia Earhart in front of her bi-plane called Friendship in Newfoundland.
Getty Images News

American aviatrix is best known for becoming the first female pilot to ever fly across the Atlantic Ocean. Her interest in aviation was sparked as a young woman when she attended a stunt-flying exhibition. A natural tomboy, she wasn't deterred by social pressure that suggested a cockpit was no place for a woman. She took her first flying lesson on January 3, 1921, and bought her own plane six months later.

The following year she'd break the woman's world altitude record, reaching 14,000 feet. A slew of other accomplishments followed, including speed records and solo flights. Earhart urged other women to fly by writing pieces about aviation for Cosmopolitan magazine and helped found International Organization of Women Pilots. It was while attempting to set a record for flying around the world that Earhart and her plane went missing. Some  she crash-landed on an uninhabited island and lived out the rest of her days there.

13. Annie Londonderry

A side profile portrait of Annie Londonderry in a hat and puffed-sleeve blouse
Annie Londonderry was the first woman to go around the globe on bicycle.
// Public Domain

Born in Latvia Annie Cohen, she married in the U.S. and became Annie Kopchovsky. But this mother of three's ambitions as an athlete, entrepreneur, and explorer urged her to create a new name for herself: , the first woman to circle the globe on a bicycle. A bet was made that challenged her to circumnavigate the world in under 15 months while earning at least $5,000 along the way. What might seem a silly wager became a way to challenge the concept of female propriety as well as a chance for her to show just how a woman might get on in the world on her own.

Departing from her husband and children on June 25, 1894, Londonderry set off from the Massachusetts State House in Boston with a crowd of 500 looking on. Along her route she sold promotional photos of herself and made paid appearances. She leased out advertising space on her clothes and bicycle, among these a billboard for Londonderry Lithia Spring Water. Once her ride was complete, called her adventure “the most extraordinary journey ever undertaken by a woman.”

14. Lady Hester Stanhope

An illustration of Lady Hester Stanhope, the first Biblical archaeologist.
Lady Hester Stanhope was the first Biblical archaeologist.
Scanned by Phrood, // Public domain

Charming and witty, was an admired socialite in English high society. But after a string of messy romances, she left England forever at the age of 33, and went on to become the first Biblical archaeologist. She journeyed to Greece, Turkey, France, and Germany.

En route to Egypt, Stanhope discarded her feminine and European attire for menswear of most common in Tunisia, a look that would prove her signature the rest of her days. She Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. Later, she'd tell tales of how she so impressed the Bedouin tribes that they named her Queen of the Desert, successor to Zenobia. But her greatest success came in 1815, when she convinced Ottoman authorities to allow her to excavate the ruins of . Stanhope went looking for gold, but instead found a 7-foot headless marble statue—which she ordered smashed to bits.

15. Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to travel into space, at the Science Museum in London, England.
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman to travel into space, at the Science Museum in London, England.
Leon Neal/Getty Images News

美女视频黄频大全视频Leaving Earth exploration behind, we move to on to the first woman to travel into space, Russian cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova. She flew the , which launched on June 16, 1963. But her path to space was paved with tragedy. Her family was stricken personally and financially when her father died in World War II. Tereshkova was only able to attend school from age 8-16.

美女视频黄频大全视频While working at factories, she continued her education through correspondence courses. Though she had no piloting experience, Tereshkova was accepted into the Soviet space program because she'd done 126 parachute jumps, an essential skill in a cosmonaut's descent to Earth. After much training, she was chosen to pilot Vostok 6, and logged 70 hours in space, making 48 orbits around Earth. Her work earned her the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, as well as the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star Medal.