美女视频黄频大全视频

How Cross-Dressing Helped Send Joan of Arc to the Stake

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Joan of Arc is best remembered for leading French troops to victory in the Hundred Years' War. Although many know about the religious visions she began to experience as a young woman, her courageous deeds in battle, and her execution at the stake, fewer know that one of the most damaging charges at her trial had to do with her clothes.

Dressing in a man’s tunic and hose was more than a fashion statement for Joan. When she was born in Domrémy, a village straddling the border between France and the Holy Roman Empire, around 1412, the between France and England had already lasted 75 years. The French House of Burgundy, allied with the English monarch Henry V, controlled the northern part of France, while those loyal to the reigning French royalty controlled the south. The French had not achieved a single victory in more than a generation, and their prospects seemed so bleak that in 1420 Henry V and Charles VI signed the , proclaiming Henry as Charles’s successor. The Crown Prince, Charles VII, rejected his father’s decree and declared himself the true ruler of France.

美女视频黄频大全视频In 1425, a devout 13-year-old Joan first heard the voices of saints (St. Michael the Archangel, St. Catherine of Alexandria, and St. Margaret of Antioch), urging her to lead troops into battle. At 17 years old, she convinced Sir Robert de Baudricourt, commander of a royal garrison, to let her go see Charles VII. While traveling to court, she began to dress like a man.

The prince was skeptical of Joan but desperate for a way to end the war, so he arranged for her to accompany his armed forces. The young woman, clad in white armor atop a white horse, carrying a white banner embroidered with fleurs-de-lis, inspired the downtrodden troops, offering key motivation and helping deliver necessary supplies and reinforcements in the decisive battle of Orléans in 1429. After a series of other victorious battles, Joan helped Charles VII hold his coronation in Reims, standing near him during the ceremonies.

But the war wasn’t won, and the Burgundians captured Joan during a skirmish outside Compiègne. They delivered her to the English for , and they then turned her over to an ecclesiastical court at Rouen, which tried her for heresy and witchcraft.

美女视频黄频大全视频When her captors asked why she wore men’s clothing, Joan replied, “Dress is but a small matter.” But upon repeated questioning, she hinted that wearing imperiled her chastity. (The soldier’s clothing she wore included a complicated series of straps connecting the hose and tunic—much harder to take off than a dress.) When told she could not attend mass unless she wore a dress, she said, “the dress of those who receive the Sacrament .”

Her inquisitors disagreed.

After threats of torture and rounds of cross examination, Joan signed a document denying her visions and agreeing not to wear men’s clothes. She was sentenced to life imprisonment, but avoided execution. However, within a few days, possibly after some unwanted male advances from prison guards, but more likely because she didn’t understand what she’d signed and hadn’t been allowed to attend Mass even if she wore female clothes, she returned to the tunic and hose. At the same time, it was discovered that she was still hearing voices. Frustrated by her relapse into heresy—both because she continued to wear men’s clothes and continued to claim hearing voices of saints—the pro-English Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, decided to excommunicate and then execute her, partly for the heresy of wearing men’s clothes.

美女视频黄频大全视频The charge was defying the Biblical verse Deuteronomy 22:5, which said that women should not wear “that which pertaineth unto a man.” Cross-dressing was generally frowned upon by medieval church and state, but there’s no record of it being prosecuted or leading directly to a death sentence. Even religious scholars agreed it was sometimes necessary: In , the priest St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that women wearing men’s clothes were sinful, but said it “without sin on account of some necessity, either in order to hide oneself from enemies, or through lack of other clothes, or for some similar motive."

Despite the theological wiggle room, Joan’s captors continued to harp on the sinfulness of her chosen wardrobe. During questioning before her second trial, they asked why she resumed wearing men’s dress, and she responded that it was " for me to resume it and to wear man's dress, being with men, than to have a woman's dress."

The bishop determined that the devil persuaded her to dress like a man, and declared her a relapsed heretic. Joan was sentenced to death, and at the age of 19, on May 30, 1431, she was burned at the stake—reportedly wearing a dress. As a heretic she could not be buried in holy ground, so her ashes were thrown into the river Seine.

美女视频黄频大全视频Charles VII eventually helped . In 1449, 18 years after her death, the French recaptured the city of Rouen—and he asked that the heresy ruling be overturned so it wouldn’t tarnish his claim to the throne. In 1456 a Trial of Rehabilitation declared Joan innocent, and in 1920 the Catholic Church canonized her as a saint. She’s now the patron saint of France, soldiers, and prisoners.

Despite the reversal of Joan’s sentence, it would be centuries before women could wear men’s clothes in public without causing a scandal. In fact, a French law forbidding women from wearing pants remained . The law required Parisian women to ask permission from city authorities before “dressing as men,” and stipulated that they could not wear trousers unless “holding a bicycle handlebar or the reins of a horse.” Joan of Arc wouldn’t have been pleased; there was no exception for divine missions.

Wayfair Is Offering Up to 65 Percent Off Air Conditioners, Robot Vacuums, and Other Appliances for a Limited Time

KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair
KitchenAid/iRobot/GoWise/Wayfair

is a one-stop online shop for just about anything you could ever need for your home, and this year, the company is getting a jump on Memorial Day sales by taking up to major appliances from now until May 28. Here, shoppers will find discounts on everything from to . These savings won't last forever, so to help you get started on your shopping, we pulled together some of our favorite deals, which you can check out below.

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A KitchenAid blender.
KitchenAid/Wayfair

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A mini fridge that's available on Wayfair.
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A bObsweep vacuum that's available ay Wayfair.
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At the Height of the 1918 Flu Pandemic, the Anti-Mask League of San Francisco Formed to Protest PPE

These New York tram conductors, photographed during the 1918 influenza, don't seem interested in joining any Anti-Mask League.
These New York tram conductors, photographed during the 1918 influenza, don't seem interested in joining any Anti-Mask League.
National Archives and Records Administration, // Public Domain

美女视频黄频大全视频In January 1919, San Francisco residents received some bad news: The second wave of the 1918 influenza was rolling through the city, and masks were mandatory once again.

美女视频黄频大全视频They already knew the drill. On October 24, 1918, Mayor James Rolph, health officer Dr. William C. Hassler, and other authorities had mandated protective masks to prevent the spread of the disease, and the general public had quickly recognized the practice as a matter of life and death.

“A week ago I laughed at the idea of the mask,“ local Red Cross chairman John A. Britton the San Francisco Chronicle at the time. “I wanted to be independent. I did not realize that the cost of such independence was the lives of others.”

While most San Franciscans rose to the occasion and volunteers organized mask-sewing events, there were still some staunch dissenters. Law enforcement officers doled out $5 fines for anyone who went mask-less in public, and a couple hundred people who failed to comply were even carted off to jail.

“John Raggi, arrested on Columbus Avenue, said he did not wear a mask because he did not believe in masks or ordinances, or even jail,” an article in the San Francisco Chronicle美女视频黄频大全视频 read. “He now has no occasion to disbelieve in jails. He is in the city prison.”

美女视频黄频大全视频When Rolph declared that the worst had passed and lifted the mask ordinance in November, people jubilantly tore off their various face coverings and tossed them into the air. By the time Rolph reinstated the rules in January, everyone was used to breathing freely and many were reluctant to return to a masked existence. Thus, the Anti-Mask League was born.

The league was chaired by Emma Harrington, a lawyer who also happened to have become San Francisco’s first female voter in 1911. Two thousand people attended the inaugural meeting, but city officials weren’t intimidated by the size of the opposition.

“We cannot in this matter pay any attention to any public agitators against the mask for the obvious reason that the question is one of public health and not of like or dislike of the mask,” Arthur H. Barendt, president of the San Francisco Board of Health, told the press.

Though the Anti-Mask League continued to meet throughout the month, participants never really landed on a common, actionable goal. The Washington Post, some people wanted to organize a petition to repeal the mask mandate, while others were simply demanding that Hassler be fired. Meanwhile, the masks did seem to be helping the city flatten the curve. On January 15, 1919—the day before health officials issued their second decree—there were 510 new flu cases and 50 deaths. On January 26, those numbers had plummeted to 12 and four, respectively.

At the league’s last gathering, having accomplished nothing, members replaced Harrington with a new chairwoman, and the meeting devolved into a state of such chaos that William Scott, who had rented the hall, simply shut off all the lights. The Anti-Mask League never recovered from that ill-fated assembly, but they didn’t need to—on February 1, city officials did away with the mask requirements for the second and final time.

[h/t ]